Causation: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - Our expert authors combine facts, perspective, analysis, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. It is causation that is at the basis of prediction and also explanation. There would be no moral responsibility either, as none of our thoughts would be connected with our actions and none of our actions with any consequences.

Without it, there would be no science or technology. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Nor would we have a system of law because blame resides only in someone having caused injury or damage. Any intervention we make in the world around us is premised on there being causal connections that are, to a degree, predictable.

Causation: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - Do causes produce their effects by guaranteeing them? do causes have to precede their effects? Can causation be reduced to the forces of physics? And are we rightto think of causation as one single thing at all?ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area.

Causation is the most fundamental connection in the universe. This very short introduction introduces the key theories of causation and also the surrounding debates and controversies.

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Metaphysics: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - For others it is known through the metaphysical poets who talk of love and spirituality. This very short introduction goes right to the heart of the matter, nothingness and emergentism, time, changes, possibilities, properties, getting to the basic and most important questions of metaphysical thought in order to understand the theory: What are objects? Do colours and shapes have some form of existence? What is it for one thing to cause another rather than just being associated with it? What is possible? Does time pass?By using these questions to initiate thought about the basic issues around substance, personal identity, causes, Stephen Mumford provides a clear and simple path through this analytical tradition at the core of philosophical thought.

About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. Our expert authors combine facts, perspective, analysis, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. Metaphysics is one of the traditional four main branches of philosophy, alongside ethics, logic and epistemology.

Metaphysics: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. For some it is associated with the mystical or religious. It is also an area that continues to attract and hold a fascination for many people yet it is associated with being complex and abstract.

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Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - Covering topics ranging from relativism and the problem of scepticism to the trustworthiness of internet sources, Nagel examines how progress has been made in understanding knowledge, using everyday examples to explain the key issuesand debatesABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area.

Our expert authors combine facts, new ideas, analysis, perspective, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. In this thought-provoking very short Introduction, Jennifer Nagel considers these classic questions alongside new puzzles arising from recent discoveries about humanity, language, and the mind.

Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - Nagel explains the formation of major historical theories of knowledge, using ideas from logic, and shows how contemporary philosophers have developed new ways ofunderstanding knowledge, linguistics, and psychology. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. What is knowledge? how does it differ from mere belief? do you need to be able to justify a claim in order to count as knowing it? How can we know that the outer world is real and not a dream?Questions like these are ancient ones, and the branch of philosophy dedicated to answering them - epistemology - has been active for thousands of years.

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Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - Our extraordinary capacity to reason and solve problems sets us aside from other animals, but our evolved thinking processes also leave us susceptibile to bias and error. He shows how our problem solving capabilities are hugely dependent on also having the imagination to ask the right questions, and the ability to see things from a completely new perspective.

These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, new ideas, perspective, analysis, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. Covering the role of past learning, and cognitive biases, IQ, Evans also discusses the idea that there may be two different ways of thinking, arising from our evolutionary history.

Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. The study of thinking and reasoning goes back to Aristotle, and was one of the first topics to be studied when psychology separated from philosophy. In this very short introduction Jonathan Evans explores cognitive psychological approaches to understanding the nature of thinking and reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.

Beginning by considering the approaches of the behaviourists and the Gestalt psychologists, he moves on to modernexplorations of thinking, including hypothetical thinking, deduction, rationality, conditionals, and intuition.

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Logic: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - In this lively and accessible introduction, Graham Priest shows how wrong this conception is. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. He explores the philosophical roots of the subject, explaining how modern formal logic deals with issues ranging from the existence of God and the reality of time to paradoxes of probability and decision theory.

Our expert authors combine facts, new ideas, analysis, perspective, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. Logic is often perceived as having little to do with the rest of philosophy, and even less to do with real life. Along the way, non-technical terms, the basics of formal logic areexplained in simple, showing that logic is a powerful and exciting part of modern philosophy.

Logic: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - In this new edition graham Priest expands his discussion to cover the subjects of algorithms and axioms, and proofs in mathematics. About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area.

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Cognitive Neuroscience: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - But there is much misunderstanding about what brain imaging tells us, and the interpretation of studies on cognition. In this very short introduction richard passingham, a distinguished cognitive neuroscientist, and the techniques available to us, gives a provocative and exciting account of the nature and scope of this relatively new field, focusing on investigation of the human brain.

With the study of patients who had suffered brain damage or injury to limited parts of the brain, and by the end of the 1970s, outlines of brain components and processes began to take shape, a new science, cognitive neuroscience, was born. But it was with the development of ways of accessing activation of the working brain using imaging techniques such as PET and fMRI that cognitive neurosciencecame into its own, as a science cutting across psychology and neuroscience, with strong connections to philosophy of mind.

He explains what brain imaging shows, remembering, pointing out common misconceptions, and gives a brief overview of the different aspects of human cognition: perceiving, deciding, attending, reasoning, and acting. Passingham concludes with a discussion of the exciting advances that may lie ahead. About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area.

Cognitive Neuroscience: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - Up to the 1960s, psychology was deeply under the influence of behaviourism, which focused on stimuli and responses, and regarded consideration of what may happen in the mind as unapproachable scientifically. This began to change with the devising of methods to try to tap into what was going on in the 'black box' of the mind, and the development of 'cognitive psychology'.

Experiments involving subjects in scanners while doing various tasks, thinking, problem solving, and remembering are shedding light on the brain processes involved.

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Philosophy of Science: Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully 'objective'? What, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, really, and investigates fascinating, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, challenging questions such as these.

Starting at the very beginning, okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, with a concise overview of the history of science, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science.

Philosophy of Science: Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophicalquestions surrounding modern science. About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. Our expert authors combine facts, new ideas, perspective, analysis, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

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Perception: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - He shows that perception is not necessarily a separate and independent process but rather part of a 'perceptual system', involving both the extraction of perceptual information and the control of action. Perception is one of the oldest and most deeply investigated topics in the field of psychology, and it is also raises some profound philosophical questions.

What we perceive, does not always correspond to what exists in the world and, however, as Rogers shows, the study of illusions can be useful in telling us something about the nature and limitations of ourperceptual processes. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, new ideas, perspective, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Perception: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - Rogers also explores perception from an evolutionary perspective, explaining how evolutionary pressures have shaped the perceptual systems of humans and other animals. Rogers goes on to cover the significant progress made recently in the understanding of perception through the use of precise and controlled psychophysical methods, single cell recordings, and imaging techniques.

Rogers discusses the philosophical question of what it means to perceive, form, as well as describing how we are able to perceive the particular characteristics of objects and scenes such as their lightness, depth, colour, and motion. As rogers shows, these attempts have revealed how difficult it is to programme machines to performeven the most simple of perceptual tasks that we take for granted.

About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

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Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - Considering the work of susan stebbing, he also explores the application of analytic philosophy to critical thinking, and emphasizes the conceptual creativity that lies at the heart of fruitful analysis. Throughout, precision of expression, Beaney illustrates why clarity ofthinking, and rigour of argumentation are rightly seen as virtues of analytic philosophy.

About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. After the second world war, and is now growing in influence as the dominant philosophical tradition right across the world, it developed further in North America, in the rest of Europe, from Latin America to East Asia.

Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - In this very short introduction michael beaney introduces some of the key ideas of the founders of analytic philosophy by exploring certain fundamental philosophical questions and showing how those ideas can be used in offering answers. Moore, and ludwig wittgenstein in the four decades around the turn of the twentieth century, analytic philosophy established itself in various forms in the 1930s.

E. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, new ideas, perspective, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. Originating in the pioneering work of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, G.

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Reality: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. What is real?' has been one of the key questions of philosophy since its beginning in antiquity. But it is not just a question philosophers ask. Our expert authors combine facts, new ideas, analysis, perspective, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Cognitive scientists ask it whentrying to find out which set of the bewildering array of data processed by our brain could constitute the basis for such supposedly fundamental entities like the free agent or the self. This very short introduction discusses what reality is by looking at a variety of arguments, physics, theories and thought-experiments from philosophy, and cognitive science.

Reality: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. It is also asked by scientists when they investigate whether the fundamental constituents of matter are actually 'out there' or just a mere abstraction from a successful theory.

It is a question that, due to such films as The Matrix, has also made its way into popular culture.

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Consciousness: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions

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OUP Oxford #ad - Our expert authors combine facts, perspective, analysis, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. How can a physical brain create our experience of the world? what creates our identity? Do we really have free will? Could consciousness itself be an illusion?Exciting new developments in brain science are continuing the debates on these issues, and the field has now expanded to include biologists, psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers.

Covering areas such as the construction of self in the brain, and thephysiology of altered states of consciousness, the neural correlates of consciousness, mechanisms of attention, Susan Blackmore highlights our latest findings. About the series: the very short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area.

Consciousness: A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions #ad - Consciousness, 'the last great mystery for science', remains a hot topic. This controversial book clarifies the potentially confusing arguments, and the major theories, whilst also outlining the amazing pace of discoveries in neuroscience.

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